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HOW BIOTECHNOLOGY IS IMPACTING THE TREATMENT AND PREVENTION OF HEART DISEASE

Biological processes utilization for industrial and other applications, notably gene modification of microbes for the synthesis of hormones and antibiotics is Biotechnology.

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Biological processes utilization for industrial and other applications, notably gene modification of microbes for the synthesis of hormones and antibiotics is Biotechnology. Now Cardiovascular disorders are a major global public health issue, with the highest mortality and morbidity rates within all disorders. For treating and preventing heart diseases, development of drugs is now gaining importance. Nanotechnology has emerged as a novel way to deal with difficulty that occurs in treatment of cardiovascular disease, with help of remarkable working of nanoscience material and nanoscience. The system of delivering Nano drugs is a type of nanoparticles that can enhance drug solubility and stabilization, extend cycle period, enhance the absorption rate of tissue or target cell, and restrict enzymatic breakdown, strengthening drug safety and efficacy of medicines. These drug systems can be given orally, through inhalation and injection intravenously. Nano-drug delivery systems are substances that have at least one nanometer-scale dimensional (1 to 100 nm) or are formed with these substances as core elements in three-dimension.

Toward the turn of the twentieth century, scientific advances in the recognition of the physiological process linked with disease in coronary artery, caused a reduction in mortality. Coronary Artery Disease is still one of the world's major reason of death. There has also been great progress in finding innovative approaches for people suffering with Coronary Artery Disease and its associated consequences due to the persistent work of doctors and researchers all over the world. Drugs, robotic surgery, and nanotechnology have all been used as part of these strategies. First robotic interventions for cardiac patients were documented by Granada et al. They did coronary angioplasty on all of their patients and claimed a 100 percent success rate.  Patients with disease like coronary artery in a multicenter trial were treated with a process known as percutaneous coronary procedure and it was described by Weisz et al. They employed the same success criteria and obtained a 97.6% success rate.  Low - density lipoprotein cholesterol decreases in phase II studies ranged from 18.2 percent to 67 percent when compared to placebo. Alirocumab reduced LDL cholesterol by 66 to 73 percent, but placebo and atorvastatin only reduced LDL cholesterol by 17 percent. Coronary Artery Disease therapies have a bright future ahead of them.

For optimal CVD prevention and therapy, rapid and precise detection is critical. In latest days, the use of molecular imaging in the diagnostics of CVDs has received much interest. New contrast agents, in conjunction to continual innovation in various imaging modalities, are essential for quick, high-resolution and high-sensitivity, and diagnosis. In early stages of disease, contrast agent can be used to target lesion or defected area. It is done by formulating nano probes that produce different chemical signals that. Can be visualize in X-ray imaging, contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging, fluorescence imaging and magnetic resonance imaging. Drug-loaded NDDSs with a large molecular mass can pass vascular wall specifically and reside in tumor infected sites. The drug-loaded nanoscale can maintain its structure in normal human blood vessels, and. alteration in shape can be used to deliver medicine through the blood stream to the Atherosclerotic  plaque in the effect of strong blood fluid shear force.

 Reperfusion therapy is most commonly employed in the initial stages of myocardial infarction, however it has the potential to trigger apoptosis and reactive oxygen species. These substances promote cardiomyocyte apoptosis and necrosis by opening the permeable transition pore of mitochondrial membrane and increasing outer mitochondrial permeability. The ability of nano-drug carriers to target the increased porosity of blood arteries and the enhanced monocytes in ischemic myocardium can help in drug delivery. RNA interference is a process in which specific gene is silenced in eukaryotes that has evolved as a protective mechanism against invading genes and pathogens. Some researchers employed nanoparticles like chitosan to build and pack short interfering RNA in response to Platelet Derived Growth Factor-B mRNA plasmid vector, which was then transfected into vascular cells of rabbit artery wall effected due to balloon catheter and delivered utilizing therapeutic ultrasound. The packed chemicals have a interactive effect, and the remedial impact is more effective than individual therapy, due to the drug nano-system and co-loaded gene, which is linked with gene interference and nanotechnology. Cardiac hypertrophy is effectively prevented with genome wide down regulation of p53 activity by targeted siRNA. The utilization of NDDSs will enhance, and novel procedures and approaches for clinical diagnosis and therapy will be supplied, due to nanotechnology innovation and deeper investigations on molecular disease processes of cardiovascular Diseases.

A number of novel genes and proteins have been discovered that can be targeted to offer greater heart protection in the search for ever-more effective medicines to cut cholesterol levels and lessen cardiovascular disease risk. Individuals with mutations that alter the Proptone convertase substillin/ kexin type 9 gene have much reduced cholesterol levels, lowering their risk of heart attack by 80%. In the United States, Verve Therapeutics is taking it a step further by developing a one-shot gene editing therapy that disrupts the PCSK9 gene persistently, lowering cholesterol levels and  cardiovascular disease risk. Individuals with established coronary artery disease and those in desperate need of novel therapeutic techniques will be the first to benefit from Verve's genome - editing therapy. The core of the bullseye is a population of high-risk individuals with unresolved requirements who have already had a heart attack or have sky-high cholesterol due to the genetic disorders. Whereas preventative therapies and lifestyle changes can be very helpful in preventing heart failure, they are sometimes not enough for some people. This has its own set of challenges: demand for donor hearts far outnumbers availability, resulting in patients waiting for months or even years for a viable transplant. Carmat's continuing international trial has showed excellent interim results, with 70 percent of heart failure patients who got the device surviving for at least six months or until receiving a heart transplant. The first data set clearly demonstrated that our device has the ability to be very effective in the management of biventricular illness, but further more reliable data will be required to prove it as a true targeted treatment. While 3D bioprinting is still in its development, the technology is fast advancing and has achieved substantial prominence in recent years, prompting the eternal question of whether we will soon be printing complete human hearts for transplantation. Although we should really not expect to be printing unique replacement hearts any time soon, there are a number of areas where bioprinting could have a substantial influence on people with cardiovascular problems in the coming days. Bioprinting technology of Cellink's is being used in a number of initiatives to create 3D cardiac models for drug testing, heart disease research, and regenerative medicine.

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  • Deng, Y., Zhang, X., Shen, H., He, Q., Wu, Z., Liao, W., & Yuan, M. (2020). Application of the Nano-drug delivery system in treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology, 7. https://doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2019.00489
  • Kandaswamy, E., & Zuo, L. (2018). Recent advances in treatment of coronary artery disease: Role of Science and Technology. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 19(2), 424. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19020424
  • Paulis, L. E., Geelen, T., Kuhlmann, M. T., Coolen, B. F., Schäfers, M., Nicolay, K., & Strijkers, G. J. (2012). Distribution of lipid-based nanoparticles to infarcted myocardium with potential application for MRI-monitored drug delivery. Journal of Controlled Release, 162(2), 276–285. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2012.06.035
  • Mitha, F. (2021, March 3). How is European biotech tackling the Cardiovascular Disease Problem? Labiotech.eu. Retrieved October 3, 2021, from https://www.labiotech.eu/in-depth/cardiovascular-disease-european-biotech/.

 

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