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Simultaneous Use of Percutaneous Aspiration (AngioVac) and Transcatheter Mitral Valve-in-Valve Intervention for Mitral Valve Vegetation

In July 2022, medical professionals from the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences reported a case of mitral valve bioprosthesis failure due to significant vegetation successfully treated with percutaneous aspiration (AngioVac) evacuation followed by MViV intervention. The complete report by Jack Xu, Shravan Turaga, Jay Bhama, Srikanth Vallurupalli, and Gaurav Dhar can be found in Methodist DeBakey Cardiovascular Journal. The summary of their report is detailed below.

Mitral valve replacement is most often completed with bioprosthetic valves; however, they possess limited durability, and when operating on a failed bioprosthetic again, morbidity and mortality increase. Therefore, transcatheter mitral valve-in-valve (MViV) replacements using a transseptal approach are used more often because of their high technical success and low risk of complication. In addition, for patients at high surgical risk, the use of the AngioVac transcatheter aspiration system (Angiodynamics) for a minimally invasive technique is increasing in popularity, especially to debulk vegetation, tumors, or thrombi on the right side.


Updated Guidelines on The Perioperative Management of Diabetes

In January 2022, The Royal London Hospital clinicians provided guidance on perioperative management of diabetes to reduce postoperative complications. The complete manuscript by Bonnie Grant and Tahseen A. Chowdhury can be found in Clinical Medicine. Its summary is described below.

Surgical intervention is more likely in those with diabetes than those without it. In addition, those with diabetes are more likely to develop perioperative complications that can include poor wound healing, infection, or cardiovascular events.

The Centre for Perioperative Care (CPOC) has released new guidance on perioperative management for those with diabetes, an area of critical focus since diabetes in surgical patients increases the risk of unfavorable outcomes. Despite this, though, there has been inadequate diabetes care in the perioperative period.


Medical Education and Training Within Congenital Cardiology

In February 2022, researchers from Children’s Health Ireland at Crumlin (Department of Paediatric Cardiology), University College Dublin, The Heart Institute at Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine (Department of Pediatrics), East Midlands Congenital Heart Centre (Department of Pediatric Cardiology), Red Cross War Memorial Children’s Hospital (Division of Paediatric Cardiology), Groote Schuur Hospital University of Cape Town (Division of Cardiology), Royal Portuguese Hospital (Department of Paediatric Cardiology), Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, University of Florida (Congenital Heart Center), and the University of Alberta ((Department of Cardiology) reviewed the current status of training in medical education regarding congenital cardiology. The full manuscript by Colin J. McMahon, Justin T. Tretter, Andrew N. Redington, Frances Bu’Lock, Liesl Zuhlke, Ruth Heying, Sandra Mattos, R. Krishna Kuma, Jeffrey P. Jacobs, and Jonathan D. Windram can be found in Cardiology In The Young. A summary is detailed below.

The improvements seen in the overlap between the fields of pediatrics and cardiac care have been numerous over the past five decades due to increased investments in research and development. Despite these advances, the training of next-generation researchers and clinicians has remained relatively the same across these decades.


Factors Affecting the Desire for Disaster Preparedness Training in Healthcare Workers

In February 2022, researchers from the Veterans Emergency Management Evaluation Center within the US Department of Veterans Affairs assessed the desire of healthcare workers for additional workforce preparedness training and the factors that affect this desire. The complete manuscript by Michelle D. Balut, Claudia Der-Martirosian, and Aram Dobalian can be found in Southern Medical Journal. The study findings are detailed below.

The Joint Commission (TJC) accredits around 77% of US hospitals, which requires healthcare organizations to test their emergency plan through an annual exercise.


Healthcare Prioritarianism During the Pandemic

In January 2021, a researcher from the University of Southern Denmark, Department for the Study of Culture, discussed prioritarianism in terms of healthcare, with a particular focus on how the pandemic has shaped these views. The full article by Lasse Nielsen can be found in the Journal of Medical Ethics. Their findings are detailed below.

Prioritarianism refers to a general conception that the worse off someone is, the more it matters to help them. This ideology can be controversial, but it is also considered a widely shared principle applicable to healthcare.

Nielsen identified three forms of healthcare prioritarianism: social justice prioritarianism, severity prioritarianism, and age-weighted prioritarianism.


Blood Autotransfusion Usage in Low-Resource Settings

In May 2022, researchers from Karolinska Institutet, Department of Global Public Health, compiled a review of information on autotransfusion use in low-resource settings, including the techniques and devices used in these settings. The complete manuscript by Maria Palmqvist, Johan Von Schreeb, and Andreas Alga can be found in BMJ Open. Their findings are summarized below. 

The primary cause of maternal mortality and preventable trauma worldwide is hemorrhage, which can be prevented if the bleeding is stopped, and the blood loss sustained by the patient is addressed with a blood transfusion. However, while the number of blood transfusions completed each year has increased, the accessibility of blood and safe transfusions, especially in low- and middle-income countries, is scarce.


Ex vivo Liver Machine Perfusion: Applications, Promises, and Challenges

In March 2022, researchers from Ruprecht-Karls University (Department of General, Visceral, and Transplant Surgery), University of Maryland School of Medicine (Program in Transportation), and Medical University of Graz (Department of Surgery) delved deeper into the topic of Ex vivo liver machine perfusion. The complete editorial by Arash Nickkholgh, Daniel G. Maluf, and Peter Schemmer can be found in Frontiers in Surgery. Its primary findings are detailed below.

Liver transplantation (LT) is a life-saving method of care for those with irreversible liver disease, but a shortage of optimal grafts has limited its success. One way to extend the donor pool is through extended criteria donors (ECDs), which can include donors after circulatory death, livers with stenosis, and livers from donors of an older age. However, these livers are typically more susceptible to ischemia before and during static cold storage.


Gender Differences in Post-CABG Survival

In February 2022, researchers from University Medical Center Utrecht, University College London, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, the Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, University of Groningen, University of Montreal, Flinders Medical Center, Flinders University, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Monash University, and Curtin University explored the differences in men's and women's survival post-CABG surgery and the cause behind these differences. The full manuscript by Amand F. Schmidt, Saskia Haitjema, Ulrik Sartipy, Martin J. Holzmann, David J. Malenka, Cathy S. Ross, Wiek van Gilst, Jean L. Rouleau, Annelijn M. Meeder, Robert A. Baker, Hiroki Shiomi, Takeshi Kimura, Lavinia Tran, Julian A. Smith, Christopher M. Reid, Folkert W. Asselbergs, and Hester M. den Ruijter can be found in Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine. A summary of their findings is detailed below.

Previous studies have established gender differences in the presentation of coronary artery disease (CAD), with younger women displaying plaque erosions likely driven by sex hormones. In contrast, plaque ruptures are more common in men. With increasing age, these difference in atherosclerosis pathophysiology becomes less pronounced, but women typically present with more complicated risk factor combinations.


LivaNova (TandemLife) Recalls LifeSPARC System

LivaNova (TandemLife) has recalled the LifeSPARC controller, part of the LifeSPARC system, because of a software malfunction that may cause the controller's monitoring feature to wrongly enter critical failure mode, causing the pump to stop working. The FDA has identified this as a Class I recall. To date, LivaNova has received 66 complaints about the fault. The FDA has received reports of two injuries and no deaths.


The Relationship Between Diabetes and Arterial Restenosis

In February 2022, researchers from Albert Einstein College of Medicine (Departments of Medicine and Molecular Pharmacology) and Federico II University (International Translation Research and Medical Education Consortium) discuss the epidemiology of restenosis and the effect of diabetes. The complete article by Scott Wilson, Pasquale Mone, Urna Kansakar, Stanislovas S. Jankauskas, Kwame Donkor, Ayobami Adebayo, Fahimeh Varzideh, Michael Eacobacci, Jessica Gambardella, Angela Lombardi, and Gaetano Santulli can be found in Cardiovascular Diabetology. The key points of the review are detailed below.

An increasingly important issue in clinical practice is restenosis, which is re-narrowing the arterial lumen after revascularization. Its incidence has dropped increasingly with technological advances in angioplasty. However, while the risk factors of ISR for the general population are more well-known, the risk factors affecting those with diabetes mellitus possess fewer studies.